Candida Species

There are more than 150 species of Candida and these are the most opportunistic fungi which mainly causes infections in the host. Candida species is naturally present in the body of all human beings, in small quantities which does no harm. The problem arises when under conducive environments like a suppressed immune system, poor nutrition or over-use of antibiotics on a regular basis which increase the number of Candida species within the body. Candida species can cause the infection in the mucous membranes and in the skin due to the rapid increase in their number. On the whole, only a few types of Candida species cause yeast infections in human body, and there are some species of Candida which aren’t that harmful at all.

A keen study was directed towards understanding the evolving nature of Candidemia during the 1990’s in order to understand the medical implications of non-Candida albicans present in the blood. Under this survey, 435 patients were brought under supervision. It was found out that the number of patients suffering from Candidiasis due to non-Candida albicans were higher in every medical unit within the study period of over three and a half years. The Candida fungi: ‘glabrata’ in this study was the most significant non-Candida albicans species causing Candidemia, which occurred mainly due to the increased immunity of the body to anti-fungal treatment. This particular study just goes to show that resilience of the different Candida species in the body. So, although 1 drug may treat a particular case of genital Candida yeast infection, but for treating Candidemia, a different form of anti-fungal drug may be required later.

 

Candida Fungus Under Microscope
Candida Albicans Under Microscope

 

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Candida Albicans

Candidiasis, a common yeast infection is caused by the Candida species: ‘Candida albicans’ which is most significant and abundant in the environment. According to studies, Candida albicans causes about 50% to 60% of all the types of Candidiasis that are invasive in nature. Diseases like oral thrush, vaginal Candidiasis, intestinal Candida, and even life-threatening Candidiasis affecting the whole body is caused by this particular type of species which is also known as monilia.

 

Candida Glabrata

Candida Glabrata under Microscope
Candida Glabrata under Microscope
It has been estimated that 20% to 30% of yeast infections are caused by the Glabrata species and day-by-day the number is rising. In the AIDS patients, the Candida species:  ‘Candida Glabrata’ mainly causes oral thrush, and even lesions are detected inside the mouth of the patients which are cheesy in texture. They are also found on the tongue and in gums. The mortality rate is higher when infected by this type of species as compared to the other species. So early treatment is vital.

 

Candida Krusei

Candida Krusei
Candida Krusei under Microscope
This is a rare species of Candida, and does not account for the disease Candidiasis as much, and in common cases it causes diarrhoea in the infants and also systemic Candidiasis. People who are suffering from granulocytopenia have this Candida species in their gastro-intestinal, urinary and respiratory tracts. The Candida Krusei species are resistant to fluconazole and thus in most cases it cannot prevent the disease in the patients.

 

Candida Tropicalis

Candida Tropicalis
Candida Tropicalis under Microscope
After Candida Albicans, Candida Tropicalis is the second most abundant Candida species and it can be frequently detected amongst yeast infection patients. It accounts for almost 15% to 30% of the infections that are caused in the blood due to yeast invasion. Patients who are suffering from leukaemia, lymphoma and diabetes are mostly affected with Candida Tropicalis, and it causes disseminated Candidiasis and septicaemia. Day-by-day this species is growing stronger, and developing resistance against most of the anti-fungals. It also has uses in the industry for producing biodiesel.

 

Candida Parapsilolis

Candida Parapsilosis
Candida Parapsilosis under Microscope
This type of Candida fungus is responsible for causing infections mainly in the European countries and has a natural resistance for anti-microbial drugs. Patients who have a suppressed immune system suffer from fungemia caused due to this type of species. It has gained much concern in the hospitals recently. These infections are caused in the nail beds after a fungal invasion, and endocarditis are caused which are a type of systematic disease occurring in the body of the patients.

 

Studies show that Candida albicans and several other associated species have become resilient to various antifungal factors especially the triazole drug compounds. The resistance property of certain Candida species has deteriorated the efficiency of treatment on several occasions. It has also altered the familiarity of the disease causing Candida albicans. This inefficiency has become much more prominent amongst patients suffering from HIV; however, with the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, the situation has slightly changed. Several other antifungal tests were conducted and it was concluded that the resistance power of the yeasts will in no way alter the empirical therapeutic measures. To stand a better chance of fighting such a complex illness, one should also look to follow an Anti-Candida diet, with regular exercise, and try some natural remedies alongside taking their anti-fungal medication.

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Ref:
– Emergence of Candida albicans species and antifungal resistance – The American Journal of Medicine – 1996 – By MD M. Hong Nguyen, MD James. Peacock Jr, MD Arthur J. Morris
sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002934395000100
 
– Resistance of Candida species – The Lancet Infectious Diseases – 2002 – By Dominique Sanglarda, Frank C Odds
sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1473309902001810
 
– Candida: Comparative & Functional Genomics
Book By: Christophe d’ Enfert & ‎Bernhard Hube
Published: 2007
 
– Candida Species: Methods and Protocols
Book By: Richard Calderone & ‎Ronald Cihlar
Published: 2015
 
– Pathogenic Yeasts & Yeast Infections
Book By: Esther Segal & ‎Gerald L. Baum
Published: 1994
 
– Candida & Candidamycosis
Book By: Emel Tümbay & ‎Heinz P.R. Seeliger
Published: 2013
 
– Genotyping Candida Species and Molecular Analysis of C. Albicans …
Book By: Ranil Samantha Dassanayake
Published: 2017
 
– Clinical Mycology
Book By: William E. Dismukes, ‎Peter G. Pappas & ‎Jack D. Sobel
Published: 2003
 
– Candida Adherence to Epithelial Cells
Book By: Mahmoud A. Ghannoum & ‎Samir S. Radwan
Published: 1990
 
– The Genetics of Candida
Book By: Donald R. Kirsch, ‎Rosemarie Kelly & ‎Myra B. Kurtz
Published: 1990
 

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